GREThA (the Research Group on Theoretical and Applied Economics of the University of Bordeaux) is a joint research institute (Unité Mixte de Recherche), associating the University of Bordeaux and the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS). GREThA develops research programmes into theoretical and applied economics.

GREThA’s Non-Practicing Entities and Innovation in Europe (NPEIE) project is funded by the French National Research Agency (ANR). Its principal objective is to constitute the first systematic and extensive research programme aiming at qualifying and quantifying the phenomenon of Non-Practicing Entities (NPEs) entering and affecting the market for technologies and innovation in Europe.

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